Clarendon Family Chiropractic - Port Melbourne
55 Rouse St, Port Melbourne, 3207
When does a person first experience a subluxation?
How might the newborn be injured at birth?
Observe the potential for neck injury. Most births proceed without complication, but some injuries may go unnoticed. Even in caesarian deliveries, the potential is still there because of small incisions requiring extraction by the head, and possibly also because it's not a natural delivery. See some of the research below.
Birth Trauma information by Clarendon Family Chiropractic Melbourne Doc
Title: “Effect of mode of delivery in nulliparous women on neonatal intracranial injury”.
In this study in the New England Journal of Medicine published in 1999 researchers reviewed data on 583,340 babies born between1992 and 1994.
33% of these babies were born with the help of surgical procedures such as vacuum extraction, caesarean section (performed during labour) or forceps.
According to this study, babies delivered with the help of surgical intervention are at a greater risk of head injury than are babies born by natural childbirth.
Babies born via operative techniques were up to 3.5 times more likely to suffer intracranial haemorrhage, compared with children who were delivered spontaneously.
Towner D, Castro MA, Eby-Wilkens E, Gilbert WM New England Journal of Medicine 1999;341 (23):1709-14
This study highlights the potential dangers of obstetrical intervention during the birth process for the infant. With this potential for harm a chiropractic assessment for the newborn may be important after every difficult birth!
Title: “Neglected spinal cord, brain stem and musculoskeletal injuries stemming from birth trauma.”
The objective of this study published in the Journal of Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics in 1993 was to conduct a review of the medical literature to determine the cause, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and prevention of injuries resulting from birth trauma. The primary focus of this study was the neonate, though the infant, child and adult were also considered because the effects of birth trauma can be so long lasting.
A compilation of case studies and articles were sourced from numerous “Medline” literature searches. American, British, Danish and German studies were included to show how widespread the problem is. Findings were selected on the basis of a clear connection between birth trauma and the resulting symptoms, syndromes and/or death.
The study concluded that:
“Birth trauma remains an under-publicised and, therefore, an undertreated problem. There is a need for further documentation and especially more studies directed toward prevention. In the meantime, manual treatment of birth trauma injuries to the neuromusculoskeletal system could be beneficial to many patients not now receiving such treatment, and it is well within the means of current practice in chiropractic and manual medicine.”
Gottlieb MS. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 16 (8): 537-543 (Oct 1993)
“Vacuum extraction: the relationship between duration and scalp injury”.
This study published in the journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology demonstrated that cosmetic scalp trauma occurred in 21% of newborns delivered by vacuum extraction and was more common after longer vacuum applications and longer second stages of labour.
In 134 vacuum extraction-assisted deliveries there were 28 infants with scalp trauma. The proportion of injuries was greater for vacuum applications exceeding 10 minutes (6 of 9) than for those 10 minutes or shorter (22 of 121).
Teng FY, Sayre JW.Obstet Gynecol 1997 Feb;89(2):281-5
“Vacuum extraction and neurological deficits in children”.
This study showed that delivery by vacuum extraction increases the incidence of perinatal injuries and consequently the incidence of neurological deficits in children.
Papaefthymiou G, Oberbauer R, Pendl G. Childs Nerv Syst 1996 Feb;12(2):117-20
These studies highlight the dangers of the use of suction during the birth process. With this potential for injury surely this is further evidence that every child delivered by suction should be assessed by a chiropractor soon after birth.
“Facial nerve palsy in the newborn: incidence and outcome”.
This retrospective study published in the “Plastic Reconstructive Surgery” journal revealed that 91% of all children who had suffered with facial paralysis were delivered with forceps.
Falco NA, Eriksson E. Plast Reconstr Surg 1990 Jan;85(1):1-4
“Skull fracture caused by vacuum extraction”.
Studies have shown the vacuum extraction delivery exerts considerable traction force during the birth process and that foetal skull fracture can result.
The authors suggest that the true incidence of injury may be higher than expected, when taking into account that few neonates with normal neurologic behaviour undergo skull x-ray.
Hickey K, McKenna P. Obstet Gynecol 1996 Oct;88(4 Pt 2):671-3
These studies highlight the dangers of the use of forceps or suction during the birth process. For this reason every child delivered by forceps or suction should be assessed by a chiropractor soon after birth.
“High cervical spinal cord injury in neonates delivered with forceps: report of 15 cases”.
This study suggests that forceps combined with rotation has the potential to cause serious complications in the newborn child. The authors discuss that when there is forceps rotation of 90 degrees or more serious cervical spinal cord injury in neonates often results.
Menticoglou SM, Perlman M, Manning FA. Obstet Gynecol 1995 Oct;86(4 Pt 1):589-94
“Kielland’s forceps: association with neonatal morbidity and mortality”.
This study addresses the issue that forceps can cause trauma and even death in the newborn.
The statistics are quoted that the neonatal mortality rate attributable to use of the forceps is 34.9 per 1000. In addition to this those children delivered by forceps demonstrated delayed onset of respiration in 17.4% of cases, birth trauma in 15.1% of cases, and abnormal neurological behaviour in 23.3% of cases. These figures significantly exceeded those in a matched group of babies born spontaneously.
The authors suggest that these results demonstrate that these neonatal complications are caused by the forceps and not related to the process of birth itself.
Chiswick ML, James DK. Br Med J 1979 Jan 6;1(6155):7-9
These studies highlight the dangers of the use of forceps during the birth process. For this reason every child delivered by forceps should be assessed by a chiropractor soon after birth.
“Routine Positions in Labour Cause Unnecessary Birth Trauma”.
This study suggests that the popular position which involves placing women in labour on their back may result in increased pressure being applied onto the sacral apex. This closes the pelvic opening and creates undue stress and difficulty in the baby’s descent.
The authors quote the statistics that in vaginal births 4.6% of term neonates suffer unexplained brain bleeds and up to 10% suffer neonatal encephalopathy. They also suggest that these injuries may be avoided by decreasing distortion of foetal skulls from pelvic contracture at delivery.
Labour posture. Gastaldo TD. Birth 1992 Dec;19(4):230
“Kinematic Imbalance Due to Suboccipital Strain in Newborns”.
This study suggests that a significantly high proportion of babies suffered birthing injuries due to prolonged labour and use of extraction devices resulting in ‘Kinematic Imbalances due to Suboccipital Strain’.
In this study conducted by a Belgian medical practitioner 135 children younger than 24 months were all treated by specific “manipulation” of suboccipital joints caused by: intrauterine malalignment, assisted births (extraction), prolonged labour, multiple foetuses and trauma.
Biedermann H; Manuelle Medizin 1992; 6:151-6
These studies again highlight the dangers of the birth process for the newborn child. Surely further evidence of the importance of a chiropractic assessment soon after the birth for the infant.
“Birth Trauma and Learning Disorders”.
The relationship of craniosacral examination findings in grade school children with developmental problems.
This study effectively demonstrates the link between obstetrically complicated births, cranial motion disorders and learning disabilities.
Upledger JE.J Am Osteopath Assoc 1978 Jun;77(10):760-76 Related Articles, Books
“Trauma to the Head and Neck Resulting in Multiple Disorders”.
This study demonstrates how birth trauma to the cervical spine and cranium can result in a large variety of disorders such as: visual disturbances, auditory troubles, headaches, vestibular problems, pharyngolaryngeal disorders, vasomotor and secretion dysfunction and psychic disturbances.
The authors suggest that spinal adjustments can achieve excellent results with many of these dysfunctions.
Orthopaedic Medicine a New Approach to Vertebral Manipulation R. Maigne
These studies highlight the dangers of the birth process for the newborn child. Further evidence of the importance of a chiropractic assessment soon after the birth for the infant.
“Relationship Between Trauma at Birth and Infant Digestive Disorders”.
This study clearly illustrates the link between birth injuries and digestive disorders in young children.
174 children with similar birth injuries underwent a variety of investigations including clinical, neurological and x-ray investigations. These investigations revealed a pathogenetic relationship between birth trauma of the spine, the medulla and the functional obturations of the intestinal tract seen as pylorospasms, spastic-hypotonic dyskinesia of the ileum and gastroesophageal reflux.
The researchers observed that there were frequent complications including: aspiration pneumonia, reflux oesophagitis, oesophageal stenosis and the development of intestinal invagination due to dysrhythmic iliac peristalsis.
“Neglected spinal cord, brain stem and musculoskeletal injuries stemming from birth trauma”.
This study, published in the respected medical journal the Journal of Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics, concludes that birth trauma causes spinal injury and that the effect can be lifelong impairment for that individual.
Gottlieb MS.. J Manipulative Physiol ther 1993 Oct; 16(8): 537-43.
These studies highlight the dangers of the birth process for the newborn child. Surely further evidence of the importance of a chiropractic assessment soon after the birth for the infant.